• Influencia Social

Cuando hablamos de estrategias de acatamiento debemos estar claros que estamos hablando de la Influencia Social.
Todos los días y a cada momento hay amigos, familiares, conocidos, etc: que desean influir en nuestras opiniones, comportamiento y decisiones.

Roberto Cialdini nos habla sobre las estrategias que influyen en nuestra actitud.




Ahora responda las preguntas cortas de la hoja de trabajo. Sus respuestas ponerlas en el blog.



Técnicas de acatamiento


Técnica del pie en la puerta:

Hay un deseo de ser consecuente. Una vez la persona objetivo acepta la primera solicitud le resulta más difícil denegar la siguiente ya que si lo hiciese se mostraría contradictorio con la primera respuesta. Existe una presión para aceptarla (Baron y Byrne, 1998)


Evidencia: Freedman y Fraser (1966) tomado de: http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/soc_psych/freed_fras_foot.html

Freedman, J. L., & Fraser, S. C., Compliance Without Pressure: The foot-in-the-door technique, JPSP, 1966, 4, 196-202


Two experiments tested the proposition that once someone has agreed to a small request he is more likely to comply with a larger request.

Previous studies had shown that external pressure can be used to increase compliance. The more pressure, the more compliance. Yet in advertising the "foot-in-the-door" technique seems successful, and had been used in activities from Korean brainwashing to Nazi propaganda.

In the first experiment, they tested four conditions:
1. Performance - They asked a small request which was done, and later a bigger request.
2. Agree-Only They asked a small request but didn't have them do it, and later a bigger request
3. Familarization They familiarized the subject to the requester (no small request) and later a bigger request.
4. One-contact They were only asked the big request.

The subjects got a telephone call with a request for some household product info answers. If agreed, they answered 8 questions about soap use. The big request was for 5-6 men to come and inventory all the products in your house.

Results were 1=52.8%, 2=33.3%, 3=27.8%, 4=22.2% . The use of a small request did induce people to comply the second time. Note that merely increased familiarity was not enough to improve subsequent compliance.

The second experiment tested whether people complied the second time due to familiarity or to maintain consistency in their responses. In the second test a different person without knowledge of the first result made the second request. They were first asked to sign a petition for either safe driving or keep california beautiful. The second request was to install a large ugly sign which said "Drive Carefully". The different petition was to test for unrelated requests.

In this study the requesters went to the homes.

The results were that all conditions had higher compliance than making a big request without the small one, even if it was a different person making the request. Furthermore, higher compliance still was found if there was issue similarity between the first and second requests.

"It seems that once someone has agreed to any action, no matter how small, he tends to feel more involved than he did before". It could also be a change in attitude about saying "yes" to requests.

Remember, these were innocuous requests from a non-profit group with relatively non-controversial goals. This technique may not produce the same results for more political or more controversial requests.

Técnica del amago:

Consiste en ofrecer un trato muy bueno al cliente. SIn embargo una vez el cliente acepta, ocurre un imprevisto que obliga al vendedor a cambiar el acuerdo y hacerlo menos ventajoso para el comprador: por ejemplo aparece algún error en el cálculo del precio o el jefe de ventas rechaza el trato. La reacción lógica es que el cliente abandone la oferta. Aún y así con frecuencia el comprador acepta los cambios y la propuesta menos ventajosa. (Baron y Byrne, 1998)


Evidencia: Cialdini et al (1978) tomado de: http://pd.scisdragons.net/ibpsych/2012/03/06/discuss-the-use-of-low-balling-technique/

In 1978, Cialdini et al demonstrated about low balling. They researched college students. They asked asked a class of first-year psychology students to volunteer to be part of a study on cognition that would meet at 7 a.m. First time when they asked to the participants, only 24% answered to be part of that study. Second time when they asked to different participants, and they did not tell the time, 56% agreed to take part. After they told them to meet at 7 a.m., no one backed out of their commitment. On the day actual meeting, 95% of the students who had promised to come showed up for their 7 a.m. appointment. The limitation of this study is that this study was only with college students.


As we see Cialdini et al’s research, low balling technique works by commitment. Commitment means that once people have agreed to something, either by their behavior or by a statement of belief, they are likely to comply with similar requests. This influences low balling techniques because commitment makes people to be follow their commitment even if the conditions change somewhat. It is more important than committing to the behavior. Low balling technique also works by cognitive dissonance because when we decided to purchase something, we justify the decision to ourselves; we are not just buying this item because it is cheap, we actually really need this item in the world.

Técnica del cebo y el interruptor

Técnica para ganar aceptación en la que los objetos ofrecidos al público se han agotado o son de baja calidad. Esto lleva a los clientes a adquirir algo más caro que si está disponible (Baron y Byrne, 1998)

Evidencia: Joule, Gouilloux y Weber (1989) tomado de: http://changingminds.org/techniques/general/sequential/bait_switch.htm

They invited students to watch interesting film clips (and hence got a lot of volunteers), but then switched the task to memorizing lists of numbers. In the control group that was just asked to help by memorizing numbers (no initial film-clip offer), only 15% agreed, as opposed to 47% who had been first offered the film-clip experiment.

Técnica del portazo en la cara


Procedimiento para ganar aceptación en la que el individuo empieza con una petición importante y una vez rechazada ofrece una menor (la que realmente quería) (Baron y Byrne, 1998)


Evidencia: Cialdini et al (1975) tomado de: http://faculty.babson.edu/krollag/org_site/soc_psych/cialdini_door_face.html

Cialdini, R.B., Vincent, J.E., Lewis, S.K., Catalan,J., Wheeler, D., & Darby, B.L., Reciprocal Concessions Procedure for Inducing Compliance: The door-in the face Technique. JPSP, 1975,31,206-215.

This study was the opposite of the Freedman and Fraswer studies. They first asked a large favor that would certainly be rejected, and then later asked a small favor.

This study explores the idea of "mutual reciprocal concessions" or "give and take" in negotiations. Previous studies showed that the idea of making an initial "firm" offer and holding pat was not an effective way to negotiate -- start higher and "give and take" down to an equitable level.

It seems that intial extreme demands that are "backed off" cause the opponent to make increased mutual concessions as well.

"The hypothesis that is we were to begin by asking for an extreme favor which was sure to be refused by the other, and then we were to move to a smaller request, the other would feel a normative strain to match our concession with one of his own."

Three conditions:
1. Rejection-Moderation condition. Subject was asked and refused first request, then asked a smaller favor.
2. Smaller Request Only control. Subject was asked only smaller request.
3. Exposure Control. Subject was described the big request and then asked for the smaller favor.

Results were that nobody agreed to the big request (ask to be a Big Brother or Sister at a detention center for two hours per week for two years). The smaller request was to chaperone a group of kids to the zoo.

Results were 1=50% compliance, 2=25% compliance, 3=16.7% compliance. A smaller request after a bigger request does improve compliance. Note that just telling them about the big request isn't sufficient to build compiance.

The second experiment tested whether the two requests needed to be done by the same requester in order to achieve compliance. The same requests were used.

Results were Rejection-moderation control = 55% compliance, Two requesters, 10.5%, and Smaller Request only 31.5%. It seems that subjects need to see a concession from their requester before making their own concession. Different requesters didn't work.

The third experiment tested compliance if the second request was the same size as the first (which may reduce the compliance because there was no concession by the requester). They asked two small requests (one to chaperone to a museum and one to the zoo).

The results were Rejection-moderation control = %54 compliance, Equivalent request=33%, Smaller request only = 33%. Two equivalent requests did not increase compliance.

In the general area of negotiating, it seems there is a norm that requires that regular (i.e., reasonable) concessions are reciprocated. Intially large concessions aren't reciprocated, and no concessions are met with no concessions.

Técnica de la palmada en el hombro

Procedimiento para ganar aceptación en el que el individuo establece algún tipo de relación con la persona objetivo incrementando así sus sentimientos de obligación para él. (Baron y Byrne, 1998)

Evidencia: Aune y Basil (1994) tomado de: Psicología Social de Baron y Byrne
Estos investigadores seleccionaron a unas estudiantes de primera fila de un campus universitario y les pidieron que contribuyesen en favor de una conocida organización caritativa. En un caso simplemente hicieron esta proposición sin añadir información adicional. En otro (en el que usaron la técnica de la palmada en el hombro) preguntaban a las transeúntes si eran estudiantes y luego añadían: Oh, fantástico yo también! Seguidamente les pedían fondos. Los resultados indicaron que el mayor porcentaje que hicieron donación fueron del grupo de las tratadas según la condición de la palmada en el hombro (25.5 por ciento de este grupo frente al 9.8 por ciento del otro). Estos hechos sugieren que el principio de reciprocidad puede resultar efectivo incluso en relaciones tan triviales como: "Ambos somos estudiantes, verdad? Los estudiantes nos ayudamos entre nosotros, no? Entonces, que tal una donación?"




Evidencia para acatamiento: Firmin et al (2004) tomado de: http://csulb.edu/~djorgens/firmin.pdf




Referencias

Baron, Robert A., Donn Erwin. Byrne, and Monserrat Ventosa. "Tácticas Basadas En El Compromiso O En La Coherencia: El Pie En La Puerta, El Amago Y Otras."Psicología Social. Madrid: Prentice-Hall, 1998. 389-91. Print.


Baron, Robert A., Donn Erwin. Byrne, and Monserrat Ventosa. "Tácticas Basadas En La Reciprocidad: El Portazo En La Cara, La Palmada En El Hombro Y El Enfoque "Esto No Es Todo"" Psicología Social. Madrid: Prentice-Hall, 1998. 391-92. Print.